Study of Romans 10:5-21

The Message of Salvation to All

Rom 10:5  For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law shall live by that righteousness. 
Rom 10:6  But the righteousness based on faith speaks as follows: “DO NOT SAY IN YOUR HEART, ‘WHO WILL ASCEND INTO HEAVEN?’ (that is, to bring Christ down), 
Rom 10:7  or ‘WHO WILL DESCEND INTO THE ABYSS?’ (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).” 
Rom 10:8  But what does it say? “THE WORD IS NEAR YOU, IN YOUR MOUTH AND IN YOUR HEART”—that is, the word of faith which we are preaching, 
Rom 10:9  that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved; 
Rom 10:10  for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation. 
Rom 10:11  For the Scripture says, “WHOEVER BELIEVES IN HIM WILL NOT BE DISAPPOINTED.” 
Rom 10:12  For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, abounding in riches for all who call on Him; 
Rom 10:13  for “WHOEVER WILL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD WILL BE SAVED.” 
Rom 10:14  How then will they call on Him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in Him whom they have not heard? And how will they hear without a preacher? 
Rom 10:15  How will they preach unless they are sent? Just as it is written, “HOW BEAUTIFUL ARE THE FEET OF THOSE WHO BRING GOOD NEWS OF GOOD THINGS!” 
Rom 10:16  However, they did not all heed the good news; for Isaiah says, “LORD, WHO HAS BELIEVED OUR REPORT?” 
Rom 10:17  So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ. 
Rom 10:18  But I say, surely they have never heard, have they? Indeed they have; “THEIR VOICE HAS GONE OUT INTO ALL THE EARTH, AND THEIR WORDS TO THE ENDS OF THE WORLD.” 
Rom 10:19  But I say, surely Israel did not know, did they? First Moses says, “I WILL MAKE YOU JEALOUS BY THAT WHICH IS NOT A NATION, BY A NATION WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING WILL I ANGER YOU.” 
Rom 10:20  And Isaiah is very bold and says, “I WAS FOUND BY THOSE WHO DID NOT SEEK ME, I BECAME MANIFEST TO THOSE WHO DID NOT ASK FOR ME.” 
Rom 10:21  But as for Israel He says, “ALL THE DAY LONG I HAVE STRETCHED OUT MY HANDS TO A DISOBEDIENT AND OBSTINATE PEOPLE.”

v5 – This is found in the Book of Leviticus. “So you shall keep My statutes and My judgments, by which a man may live if he does them; I am the LORD.” Leviticus 18:5. This is in reference to a righteousness which a perfect obedience to the law would produce. That consisted in perfectly doing all that the law required.

vs6-8 – This was a very difficult set of passages to figure out.  However, this is what I have found makes the most sense. Verse 6 – Righteousness based on faith will not require someone to ascend in to heaven to bring the Messiah down since He has already come down. “For this commandment which I command you today is not too difficult for you, nor is it out of reach. It is not in heaven, that you should say, ‘Who will go up to heaven for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?” Deuteronomy 30:11-12. Verse 7 – Righteousness based on faith does not require someone to descend into the grave in order to raise the Messiah from the dead. “”Nor is it beyond the sea, that you should say, ‘Who will cross the sea for us to get it for us and make us hear it, that we may observe it?” Deuteronomy 30:13. Verse 8 – For the word is near us. It is with us and it is in us; in our mouth and heart. Deuteronomy 30:14.

vs9-11 – To confess properly means to “speak what agrees with something which others speak or maintain.” Thus, confession or profession expresses our “agreement or concord with what God holds to be true, and what he declares to be true.” It denotes a public declaration or assent to that, here expressed by the words “with thy mouth.” A profession of religion then denotes a public declaration of our agreement with what God has declared, and extends to all his declarations about our lost estate, our sin, and need of a Savior; to his doctrines about his own nature, holiness, and law; about the Savior and the Holy Spirit; about the necessity of a change of heart and holiness of life; and about the grave and the judgment; about heaven and hell. As the doctrine respecting a Redeemer is the main and leading doctrine, it is put here by way of eminence, as in fact involving all others; and publicly to express our assent to this, is to declare our agreement with God on all kindred truths. This is the word, that of faith and not by works, that they are preaching. With the mouth is to speak what you confess; sincerely and truly believe what you have confessed, that Jesus was raised from the dead by God the Father. The word in verse 11 translated ‘disturbed’ can also be translated disappointed, disgraced humiliated or put to shame.

v12 – The term Greek was used to denote those who spoke the Greek language. However, the Jews were pretty much limited to the Greeks among them, and therefore the term Greeks became a way of saying non-Jews. They were not aware of many, other than the Greeks, who were non-Jews. Note these verses in Romans. “For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law. since indeed God who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith is one. Do we then nullify the Law through faith? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law.” Romans 3:28-30. And this is further defined by Jesus when He said, “If you love Me, you will keep My commandments.” John 14:15.

v13 – This was prophesied by Joel, “And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the LORD Will be delivered; For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem There will be those who escape, As the LORD has said, Even among the survivors whom the LORD calls.” Joel 2:32

v14 – This can also be worded as such, How can anyone call on someone they do not believe in? How can they believe in someone they do not know or have heard about? And how can they hear of them if no one goes out to tell them? These are three important questions to answer, and they way we resolve this is by going out and witnessing, performing evangelism.

v15 – And finally, how can there be preachers unless they are sent out and commissioned by God. The word “how” does not refer to the manner of preaching, but to the fact that there would be no preachers at all unless they were sent forth. To preach means to proclaim in a public manner, as a crier does. In the Scriptures it means to proclaim the gospel to people. (See Isaiah 52:7-12 regarding being commissioned and then going out.

vs16-17 – After all the attention given to this, Paul had to acknowledge that not all have obeyed the gospel. So far as the objection of the Jew arises from that fact, and so far as that fact can bear on the case, it is to be conceded that all have not yielded obedience to the gospel. (See Hebrews 4:1-3)

v18 – This idea is expressed in the psalms. “For the choir director. A Psalm of David. The heavens are telling of the glory of God; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.  Day to day pours forth speech, And night to night reveals knowledge. There is no speech, nor are there words; Their voice is not heard. Their line has gone out through all the earth, And their utterances to the end of the world. In them He has placed a tent for the sun, Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber; It rejoices as a strong man to run his course.” Psalm 19:1-5.

v19 – Israel did not get what was being spoke to them. They apparently did not understand. (See Deuteronomy 32:1-21) Note, Israel angered God with their idols, therefore He will make them jealous and provoke them with another nation. “They have made me jealous with what is no god; they have provoked me to anger with their idols. So I will make them jealous with those who are no people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.” Deuteronomy 32:21.

vs20-21 – This verse is found in Isaiah 65:1-5, He is speaking of people other than Jews,

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